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ReScript: Connect to localStorage using FFI and functors

2021-03-05 • 4 min read

While creating my snippets website I needed to store a value for how the user wants to copy the snippet. To store the value I wanted to use localStorage which is very straight-forward to bind to using ReScript's foreign function interface (FFI).

Writing these bindings is usually one of the harder parts when getting started with ReScript, but the help is getting better with both the syntax lookup and the docs.

@val @scope("localStorage") external getItem: string => Js.Nullable.t<string> = "getItem"
@val @scope("localStorage") external setItem: (string, string) => unit = "setItem"

This is all we need to do to bind to localStorage's getItem and setItem functions. Let's walk through the parts of one of them.

  • @val - Bind to a global JavaScript value
  • @scope("localStorage") - Set the parent scope to "localStorage"
  • external getItem - An external value and what we want to call it (getItem) on the ReScript end.
  • string => Js.Nullable.t<string> - The function takes one string, the key in localStorage, and returns a string or null.
  • "getItem" - Tells the compiler what the name of the function is on the JavaScript end. This works together with the scope to bind to localStorage.getItem

The return value of getItem isn't very easy to work with as it could potentially be any string or null. We can improve this by using a functor, like we previously used for React Context, which returns a nice custom hook that uses variants instead.

// Storage.res
module type Config = {
type t

let key: string
let fromString: option<string> => t
let toString: t => string
}

We start by creating a module type that tells us what the module that is passed in needs to contain.

  • t is the variant we are transforming the string to
  • key is a what the value should be stored as in localStorage
  • fromString and toString handle the conversions of the value from JavaScript land to ReScript and vice versa.
// Storage.res

// module type Config here...

module Make = (Config: Config) => {
let useLocalStorage = () => {
let key = Config.key
let (state, setState) = React.useState(() => getItem(key))

let setValue = value => {
setItem(key, value->Config.toString)
setState(_ => getItem(key))
}

(state->Js.Nullable.toOption->Config.fromString, setValue)
}
}

We then add a Make module that accepts another module (very meta) of the Config type we created above. This returns a useLocalStorage hook that wraps the getting and setting using our configuration module.

// FruitBasket.res
module Fruit = {
type t = Apple | Banana

let key = "fruit"

let fromString = value =>
switch value {
| Some("apple") => Apple
| Some("banana") => Banana
| Some(_)
| None =>
Apple
}

let toString = value =>
switch value {
| Apple => "apple"
| Banana => "banana"
}
}

module FruitStorage = Storage.Make(Fruit)

@react.component
let make = () => {
let (fruit, setFruit) = FruitStorage.useLocalStorage()

let toggleFruit = _ => {
switch fruit {
| Apple => Banana
| Banana => Apple
}->setFruit
}

<div>
{fruit->Fruit.toString->React.string}
<button onClick={toggleFruit}> {React.string("Toggle fruit")} </button>
</div>
}

This is the final part where we are creating a storage setup and a component. We first create a Fruit module that implements all the parts of our Config module. If we miss something in our implementation of the module the compiler will complain when we try to create a Storage in the next step. Note that fromString takes care of handling any unknown strings and null values, for those cases we always get Apple.

To get storage for our fruits we create a FruitStorage using module FruitStorage = Storage.Make(Fruit). This contains our useLocalStorage hook that we can use in our component to both get the current fruit and update the stored value. Now we have a great way of persisting if we either have an apple or a banana!

If you want to see the implementation I ended up with for my snippets, which is very similar to what we've created, you can take a look at these two files in the repo, Storage.res and SnippetCode.res.